Kidney cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the kidneys, the bean-shaped organs that filter waste products from the blood and produce urine. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, which accounts for about 90% of all kidney cancer cases. Other types of kidney cancer include transitional cell carcinoma, renal sarcoma, and Wilms tumor, which is most commonly found in children. Kidney cancer can be difficult to detect in its early stages because it often does not cause any symptoms, but as the cancer progresses, symptoms such as blood in the urine, pain in the side or back, and weight loss may develop. In this article, we will discuss the various treatments available for kidney cancer.

Diagnosis of Kidney Cancer

The first step in treating kidney cancer is to diagnose the disease. Your doctor may order various tests to determine whether you have kidney cancer. These tests may include:

  • Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI scans, to get a detailed picture of the kidneys and surrounding tissues
  • Biopsy, a procedure in which a small sample of kidney tissue is removed and examined under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present
  • Blood tests, which may be used to detect certain proteins or other substances that are produced by kidney cancer cells

Once kidney cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will determine the stage of the cancer to determine the appropriate treatment options.

Treatment Options for Kidney Cancer

The treatment options for kidney cancer depend on several factors, including the stage and location of cancer, the patient’s overall health, and the patient’s preferences. The main treatments for kidney cancer include:


Surgery is the most common treatment for kidney cancer, especially if the cancer is confined to the kidney. In many cases, the entire kidney may be removed, which is called a nephrectomy. In some cases, only part of the kidney may be removed, which is called a partial nephrectomy. After surgery, patients may need to stay in the hospital for a few days and may need to take pain medication to manage their discomfort.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It is not often used as the main treatment for kidney cancer, but may be used in certain cases, such as when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body or when surgery is not an option. Radiation therapy can cause side effects such as fatigue, skin irritation, and nausea.


Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that works by boosting the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. There are several types of immunotherapy drugs that may be used to treat kidney cancer, including checkpoint inhibitors and cytokines. Immunotherapy can cause side effects such as fatigue, fever, and muscle aches.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to target specific molecules or proteins that are involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. There are several targeted therapy drugs that may be used to treat kidney cancer, such as sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib. Targeted therapy can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue.


Kidney cancer is a serious disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. The most common treatment options for kidney cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted

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